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Annotated Bibliography

From Women in European History

Street, Julian. (1929). Where Paris Dines. Doubleday.

This book is an account by a food expert from America of the restaurants, food, and wine of Paris. Street is packaging French gastronomic culture for a prewar American audience, so the comparison between this volume and Julia Child's adaptations of French culture would seem interesting. However, I did not use this source because it is not as relevant to what became important in my critical biography, which was exploring the source of Julia's mostly gender irrelevant rise to the top.

McIntosh, Elizabeth P. (1989). The Role of Women in Intelligence. The Association of Former Intelligence Officers.

Julia Child's work at the precursor to the CIA during WWII is not mentioned in detail in her autobiography; much of her experience is only hinted at. So, this book will put her experience into context and perhaps shed light on what her working environment was like. This book was not available in time at the Regenstein. Also, McIntosh served in the OSS with Julia, so her account is especially interesting.

Fenzi, Jewell. (1994). Married to the Foreign Service: an oral history of the American diplomatic spouse. Maxwell MacMillan: Canada.

As Julia's cooking grew out of her position as the wife of an American diplomat, this primary source will provide a general picture of the life of a diplomat's wife and the conditions under which these women could expect to live for years. Also, Jewell Fenzi interviewed Julia Child herself, so this is a further primary source about her experience in France in the specific domain of being a diplomat's wife. The interview is short and does not give any new information about Julia's situation, but the information about the other wives will be useful.

Menges, C (Ed.). (2000). The Marshall Plan from those who made it succeed. University Press of America.

This book was collected at a Georgetown conference commemorating the the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. The book chronicles this conference and contains memories from participants as well. Because it speaks specifically of the rise and fall of the Marshall Plan in Paris, it directly relates to the events which brought Julia Child into and out of France. Julia Child's fate was very connected with the Marshall Plan, and she was very opinionated about its successes and failures as she saw them. The organizers of the event thought that the Marshall Plan was a success, though the individual memories suggest a more complex interpretation.

Fitch, Noel. (1997). Appetite for Life: The Biography of Julia Child. New York: Doubleday.

Because My Life in France is not a comprehensive look at the complete life of Julia Child, this biography will help fill in the earlier years of her life, which are necessary to understanding how Julia was able to succeed without being fettered by her gender. It is well-researched and complements the autobiography in the chapters which overlap, as well.

Chew, William (Ed.). (2001). National Stereotypes: Americans in France. Frenchmen in America. Amsterdam: Atlanta, Georgia.

A great deal of Julia Child's autobiography discusses the relationship between French and Americans—both the problems of expatriates and of the different things that French and American housewives want. This book is a collection of articles which are organized chronologically and topically; it shows the long history of relations between the French and Americans from their republican roots to postwar gender issues. Many of the issues raised in My Life in France are about the problem of a French influence upon American households, and the article about the Americanization of the French household in the same era is a useful parallel to examine.

Neuhaus, Jessamyn. (1999). The Way to a Man's Heart: Gender Roles, Domestic Ideology, and Cookbooks in the 1950s.Journal of Social History, Vol. 32, No. 3: pp. 529-555

This article examines cookbooks published in the 1950s with a gender-critical lens. It is useful for this biography not only because it deals with cooking and women, but also because Julia's rise to success, which was mostly free from gender-related barriers, led to yet another cookbook for American housewives.

de Beauvoir, Simone. (1952) The Second Sex. Knopf: New York. Friedan, Betty. (1963) The Feminine Mystique. Dell.

I compared The Second Sex with The Feminine Mystiquein order to gage women's attitudes about themselves in post-war US and France. I find it interesting that female writers were questioning and analyzing their roles in society both in France and in the US at around the same time, which was also when Julia's ascent to success happened.

Hook, Jennifer; Pettit, Becky. (2005) The Structure of Women's Employment in Comparative Perspective. Social Forces, Vol. 84, No. 2: pp. 779-801.University of North Carolina Press

This article provided background information about comparing women's employment figures across countries, as well as gave relevant information about demographic trends among female workers which started after WWII

McMahon, Joseph H. (1964). City for Expatriates. Yale French Studies, No. 32: pp. 144-158.

This article examines the relationship between the American expatriates in France in the 1920s with France and the United States. It serves as a good point of comparison to the experiences of the Childs post-WWII as well.

Thorpe, Willard. (1969). Untitled Review of Expatriates and Patriots: American Artists, Scholars, and Writers in Europe, by Ernest Earnest. American Literature, Vol. 41, No. 2: pp. 305-307.

This review of a book is very interesting because it highlights tensions with the academic world as to the definition of an expatriate, concentrating specifically on the person's relationship with his or her home country. This is interesting when we look at the expatriates in the 1920s and compare them ideologically with the post-WWII expatriates.

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