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Annotated Bibliography for Charlotte von Mahlsdorf

From Women in European History

Haeberle, J. Erwin. "Swastika, Pink Triangle and Yellow Star-The Destruction of Sexology and the Persecution of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany." The Journal of Sex Research (1981): 270-287.

Prior to Hitler's rise in power, German Jews were conducting significant amounts of research in the field of sexology in an attempt to identify a biological or scientific explanation for homosexuality in humans. Curtailing this mission created an avenue by which the extermination of homosexuals could be practiced. Haeberle further reveals a plethora of known instances showing homosexuality had been secretly practiced in German life prior to the outward repulsion of homosexuality. UNCLEAR Upon becoming a widespread social taboo, there was a notable increase in German citizens feeling at ease to verbalize and express homophobic sentiments and hatred of homosexuality. Furthermore, the abuse of homosexuals by the German public with negative views of homophobic sentiments transformed from verbal abuse, to government supported physical abuse and imprisonment. Germany saw an increase in the amount of prisoners in German concentration camps being held for being homosexual, or being accused of being homosexual. These individuals bore a pink inverted triangle on their camp clothes to represent their sexual deviance. Such identification showed that homosexuality maintained the same negative connotation amongst the detained as it did amongst the general public and government.

Micheler, Stefan. "Homophobic Propaganda and the Denunciation of Same-Sex-Desiring Men under National Socialism." Journal of the History Sexuality (2002): 95-130.

Micheler outlines the rising progression of sexuality based hatred in Germany from the early more docile, unexpressed discontent for homosexuality to the outright brutal mistreatment, persecution, and injustice endured by homosexuals in Germany. The persecution of homosexuals was not invented nor ignited the Nazi rule. Prior to the take-over by the Nazi regime, Germany as a nation was very homophobic, but not very outwardly expressive of these homophobic sentiments. In the article, Micheler makes claims that the Nazi rule exposed those pre-existing homophobic sentiments of the German society. The Nazi regime encompassed the power to instill and enforce widespread homophobic tendencies. This would be effective in uniting the pre-existing homophobic denizens, and terrorizing any homosexuals into silence. It also theorizes the reasoning behind the homophobia present in the Church, in Germany, and amongst men.

Oosterhuis, Harry. "Medicine, Male Bonding and Homosexuality in Nazi Germany." Journal of Contemporary History (1997): 187-205.

This article is a thorough exploration of the different influences that caused homophobia in the public sphere and social life of Germany. The article delves into the Nazi definition and expectations of man and how such sentiments factor into their theories on homosexuality. Also, Oosterhuis details how homosexuality and homophobia affects the role of politics, family life, and feminine struggles. He uses the role of the Mannerbud to facilitate appropriate male bonding to illustrate why homosexuality caused such fear, anger, and discontent.

Rupp, J. Leila. "Mother of the Volk: The Image of Women in Nazi Ideology." Signs (Winter 1977): 362-379.

The primary basis of this article was to explain the role of women in Nazi Germany, as defined by the Nazis as well as the German public. In Nazi Germany, women and familial care coincide with one another while men and the military coincide. The article claims that the role of women as the birth giver, and “queen” of the household was enforced by the Germans not as a means of demeaning women of abasing the role and impertinence of women to life. When a female would uptake responsibility of the traditional family role, it was to be considered a great duty to the public and German nation. Women were in charge or producing, caring for, and raising the proper men to run the nation, or more women to continue the work of great women for the future generations.

Austin, S. Ben. “Homosexuals and the Holocaust.” Middle Tennessee State University. 26 April 2010 <http://frank.mtsu.edu/~baustin/homobg.html>.

The number of homosexuals murdered in concentration camps in Nazi Germany during the Holocaust is often under estimated as well as often times entirely unknown of. Along with people of Jewish descent, and criminals against the nation, homosexuals represented a large population of people imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps. The homosexual detainees bore a pink inverted triangle on their clothing to denote their sexual orientation and were secluded from all other prisoners for fear that their homosexuality would spread. These people were beaten and abused just as badly if not worse than the other prisoners. This article addresses homophobia in Germany from the Enlightenment period, well into the murder of well none homosexual Nazi, Ernst Roehm, the development and enforcement of Paragraph 175, and the extermination of homosexuals in concentrations camps.

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