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Charlotte Delbo

From Women in European History

Charlotte Delbo From Women in European History

A wiki page by Denver Barrows

Based on Charlotte Delbo's autobiographical trilogy from: Delbo, Charlotte. Auschwitz and After. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. Print.

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Charlotte Delbo was a French writer known for the disturbing recollections of her time in Auschwitz retold in her three-part collection of prose and poems Auschwitz and After. Delbo’s intimate recollections paint a haunting picture of life in Auschwitz and describe more than just a story few could even imagine: she describes a journey few could understand. She occupied a somewhat unusual and unexpected position among Auschwitz inmates; unlike most, she was not detained because of her religion or race, but rather because of her political opinions and her role in the resistance movement during World War II (specifically in France). Returning from this wickedness proved almost as difficult for Delbo as living in it. She wrote the the first part of her novel, “None of Us Will Return,” in the years following her return from Auschwitz, however she waited nearly two decades to publish this part because she felt it was impossible to convey the greatest atrocity in the history of humanity in words she thought were expressed too quickly. Twenty years later she realized the profundity of her words and decided to have them published. Although Charlotte Delbo struggled to decided to publish her life’s greatest work, she conquered her own doubts about the text and universal ignorance regarding the Holocaust to offer humanity a piece of her life’s puzzle in the painted words of Auschwitz and After. Delbo introduces Auschwitz as the ultimate equalizer, erasing all identities confound by race, religion, or gender and uniting them in an everlasting experience of horror that affected their lives not just in Auschwitz but after.

Before the War

Charlotte Delbo’s early life was sparked by an interest in politics and theater that transformed her life. She was born near Paris in Vigneux-sur-Seine on 10 August 1913. In 1932 she joined the French Young Women’s Communist League, an organization focused on educating people on the ideas of communism and advocating the spread of communism throughout Paris. Delbo quickly earned a prominent role in this organization and many of the ideas present in the French YWCL translated to her resistance in World War II. In 1934 she met and married George Dudach, who was also an active communist. [1]

After their marriage, Delbo spent a short period as a philosophy student at the Sorbonne (the University of Paris), but left her studies to pursue her passion for theater. She became the administrative assistant of Louis Jouvet, a renowned French writer, director and producer, and traveled with Jouvet throughout South America. She was in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1940 when France was invaded and subsequently occupied by German forces. Instead of waiting in Argentina with Jouvet for the war to end, Delbo decided to return to France in 1941. [1]

After the Germans took control of France, Marshall Philippe Pétain was granted virtually unlimited powers by the National Assembly on 10 July 1940 and named President of the Council. Once he had gained this ultimate authority, Pétain established exclusive courts in 1941 to deal with members of the resistance and soon after one of Delbo’s close friends Andre Woog was put to death. [2] She told Louis Jouvet that she was leaving Argentina because she “can’t stand being safe while others are put to death. I won’t be able to look anyone in the eye.” [3] And so she returned to France and rejoined her husband, who was already active in the resistance movement.

French Resistance and Arrest

Upon arriving back in Paris, Delbo immediately involved herself with the resistance movement doing all she could do to denounce the Nazi regime that had not only taken over her country but moved to destroy an entire race. Much of her time was spent distributing anti-Nazi memos and pamphlets hoping to counteract the clouding of innocent minds by the Nazi propaganda and fear-instilling order. It is important to note that Delbo rose as an important female figure in the resistance movement even though her contribution was not particularly feminine. She was not following the lead of men, but working side by side with them. This is much in part because the goal of the Nazi regime and the Holocaust was to eliminate a race, not a gender and Delbo was determined to fight this injustice in France not just as a female, but as a human being.

Both Delbo and her husband became involved with Georges Politzer who was an active communist; the French police arrested all three on 2 March 1942 on a charge of distributing anti-German leaflets in Paris. The French turned them over to the Gestapo, who imprisoned them. Her husband was killed on 23 May 1942 after saying goodbye to Delbo as she was shipped off to a transit camp in Paris (it is unknown why Delbo's husband was killed before her). [3]

Additional Background Information on the French Resistance

Convoy to Auschwitz

On 24 January 1943, Charlotte Delbo and 230 other Frenchwomen, the majority of whom were members of the resistance movement (very few were actually Jews), were put on a train from Compiegne to Auschwitz. Delbo recounts much of this journey in her novel Convoy to Auschwitz, which is a collection of assembled stories of every one of her fellow inmates as they traveled to Auschwitz. It was initially published in 1965 as Le Convoi du janvier. Delbo recalls the somewhat superficial optimism of her fellow travelers as they wrote home.

"We took out paper and pencils out of our bags and wrote notes: ‘“Would that person who finds this be kind enough to notify _____ (blank) in _____ (blank) that her daughter’ _____ (blank) or ‘his wife’ or ‘her sister’ – ‘Christine’ or ‘Suzanne’ or ‘Marcelle’- has been deported to Germany. We are in good spirits. See you soon.’” Viva always ended with ‘I will return,’ underlined." [4]

This somewhat superficial claim to “good spirits” adds an interesting element to their story. It impresses upon their belief in the cause for resistance and the fact that imprisonment was not going to damper they way they felt about the actions of the Nazi regime. These women were entrenched in their beliefs and call to justice. They had survived Vichy France and done all they could to combat the German forces there. Now they were headed to Auschwitz where they would be forced to confront the Nazis face to face and they were determined to remain positive about their cause.

Delbo recounts the first sight of Auschwitz: “Turning off the road, we were suddenly faced with barbed wire and watch towers. Barbed wire white like sugar crystals, watch towers black against the snow.” [4] Her convoy had heard stories of the unpleasant nature of the place they were headed and now at the first sight of the villainous world they would call home, there was an almost immediate transformation. Unfortunately for them, the stories they had heard could only provide so much and in order to imagine the truth of Auschwitz they were forced to experience it. They inmates had to prepare themselves for an unthinkable struggle as soon as they entered because without any remote preparation they would have lost all sense of life immediately.

Delbo’s convoy of women is very famous for the unique and unmistakeable entrance into Birkenau, the female side of Auschwitz; they were singing “la Marseillaise,” the national anthem of France, demonstrating their pride and faith in the nation they called home. [1] This was their first fight to retain a sense of humanity in a camp set on dehumanizing every one of them and it was their most noticeable claim to dignity and nationalism throughout their time in Auschwitz. The struggle to remain singing as they were driven into the camp mirrors their struggle for existence in the end. Regrettably, many more women sang as they were entering then stood when they were leaving. Acting to retain a sense of self was a fight that had to be fought, unfortunately it was one that was almost impossible to win. Without standing up and acting in the interest of self worth and being, the inmates would have inevitably lost all sense of autonomy. However, small acts kept it alive and in doing so kept them alive.

Stay in Auschwitz

Delbo’s first section of Auschwitz and After, “None of Us Will Return,” begins her journey into Auschwitz and describes much of the trepidation she experienced as an inmate. As she departs for Auschwitz she notes, “They (the women in her convoy) had no idea you could take a train to Hell but since they were there they took their courage in their hands ready to face what’s coming.” [5] Both Delbo and the other inmates were not just facing Hell, they were living it; “only those who enter the camp find out what happen to the others” and these women were trying to avoid the possibility of becoming “the others” because their fate was death. [5] Upon entering the camp, “All were marked on their arm with an indelible number. All were destined to die naked.”[5] This branding was the first mark of inhumane treatment and one that forged a lifetime of remembrance on the inmates. Delbo's claim in this quote is twofold: it is true that many of the inmates died naked however she is pointing towards a more metaphorical naked, one in which the inmates had been stripped of their humanity and forced to die as if they had never lived. They walked in as human beings and within hours they were transformed into meaningless numbers treated like meaningless cattle destined for nothing more than the slaughterhouse. Delbo’s stay in Auschwitz was characterized by this constant quest to avoid what was thought to be the inevitable: a naked death. The conquest to avoid the fate of the others and persevere through Hell became the ultimate goal.

Much of the struggle to survive, exemplified in the following quote, was in finding the balance of surviving as an individual and surviving as a group:

"We did not move. The will to struggle and endure, life itself, had taken immediate refuge in a shrunken part of our bodies, somewhere in the immediate periphery of our hearts. We stood there motionless, several thousand women speaking a variety of languages from all over, huddled together, heads bowed under the snow’s stinging blasts." [5]

Delbo’s battle to survive was not fought alone. She fought as an individual to remain an individual, to retain a sense of remote autonomy, self-worth and being and she fought as a group to stay alive. This was a test because in order to stay alive the group took everything, but somehow an inmate had to salvage a part of themselves. In essence, fighting as an individual became the personal, inner war and fighting as a group the outer, physical war. In no way were the inmates confronting the Nazi camp leaders, rather their war with the Nazis was to withstand their vile actions. Her trial to balance this sense of individualism in a group points to the struggle faced by all inmates. Depending on oneself was the only assurance; however, it was necessary to depend on others. It was impossible to survive without both of these elements present in an inmate's life. Unfortunately even those who were able to balance these two aspects died simply because of the unbearable conditions they lived in. This balancing act was the only way to survive, however it could not keep one from dying.

In 1945 the Swedish chapter of the International Red Cross retained custody of Charlotte Delbo as well as many of the women who were fellow inmates in Auschwitz.[3] They were taken to Sweden until they were able to recuperate from their time in the camp. After Delbo had regained strength she returned to France.

Gender Relations in Auschwitz

Although the living quarters for males and females in Auschwitz were different and Delbo provides most of her insight into the lives of women in Auschwitz, there is evidence to suggest that the treatment of inmates was uniform across all gender lines. Delbo discusses the lives of males in some accounts and distinguishes that, in the case of political prisoners, there was no distinction among men and women in the Holocaust in regards to the way they were treated. [5] The important category in Auschwitz and other extermination camps was not gender, in fact, the gender category did not exist; the focus of the Nazis was on the Jewish religion/race.[6]

After World War II Delbo claims, “I must not be discussed as a woman writer. I am not a woman in my writing.” She told her friend Cynthia Haft that there was not “a distinctive female experience of the Holocaust” emphasizing “the camp system grants complete equality to men and women.” [7] Claiming that she is not a woman in her writing is a point Delbo insists the reader focuses on; she wants her account to be that of a human being who is not bounded by an subset divider like gender, because in Auschwitz there was no divider, only uniform suffering. One can gather the irony when Delbo states that "the camp system grants complete equality to men and women;"[7] the Nazi goal was to create a world in which only Aryans ruled, an inherently unequal world. However, in the camps set on destroying Jews and anyone who interfered with the Nazi movement, they had created a world in which each inmate received an equal amount of cruelty and anguish. Interestingly enough this was not a model that the Nazis followed with the Aryan race. They believed that there were explicit gender divisions among Aryans in regards to occupation and societal roles. Gender divisions seem to be an idea reserved for the Aryans race, leading one to the thought that perhaps the Nazis did not feel as if the Jews and resistance leaders were worthy of such discrepancy. Ultimately this connects directly with the Nazi philosophy; they felt as if Jews were sub-human and destined to ruin the world. If they felt that gender division should be reserved for humans only, then they would not grant the "undesirables" such a privilege.

Much of the sociological research on gender relations/treatments during the Holocaust reveals exactly what Delbo was saying all along: that treatment was universal and not distinguished to a certain sex, but to certain people. Sociologists and Holocaust scholars argue against any research on the treatment of different genders during the Holocaust because they would distract from the intent of the Nazis; it was not to conquer a gender but to conquer the Jewish religion/race. [8]. Delbo’s role in the Holocaust is rather different because the Nazis weren’t attempting to exterminate the race of resistance movement members; rather they were attempting to silence them. Even though the treatment of Jews and non-Jewish resistance leaders was different in real life it was rather similar once they arrived in the death camps and not bound to a certain identity.

After Aushwitz

After recovering, Delbo returned to France and was faced with yet another task: reintegrating herself into a world that could not understand her time in Auschwitz. Throughout World War II the French watched as homes were destroyed all over the country, doing nothing to preserve the only comfort many citizens would look for when they returned. Thus, the few inmates who returned often found their homes destroyed and the majority of the homes left after the liberation of Paris became government offices.[9] Fortunately for Delbo, her childhood home was still in tact when she returned. Even though this home had not been destroyed, haunting memories of Auschwitz combined with pleasant memories of pre- World War II life made it a difficult transition. She recounts the terror in returning to the home in which her sister, who had died in Auschwitz, was born.

"All was still in its place in the house. Dedee’s [her dead sister’s] things here and there, her room; all was as it had been before…all becoming menacing. I didn’t know how to avoid contact with all those objects that encircled, assailed, hit me. How to flee, how to dissolve myself, to no longer be held by the past, bumping into walls, things, memories?" [9] (Quote from Delbo in Auslander's "Coming Home? Jews in Postwar Paris.")

Even though it was difficult to live in a home she once shared with her sister, it was even more difficult to create a home elsewhere because there would be no memories, good or bad. The memories that haunted her from her time in Auschwitz were more meaningful than a life without memory. There was no way to create a clean slate where she could write a new life, so Delbo was forced to add to her story, a story that for three years had been written for her. This was a battle faced by any inmate fortunate enough to return from Auschwitz as they were on a constant quest to find a new life in which the memories of the death camp could live but one in which they would not hold them back. She began writing as soon as she regained her strength and recalls it being rather easy as her emotions just poured out in words. This was part of the reason Delbo decided to wait to publish the work, because she thought her words about the Holocaust would not do justice to the real event.

None of Us Will Return

Delbo wrote the first volume of her trilogy "Aucun de nous ne reviendra (None of Us Will Return)," a fusion of the experiences of female resistance leaders in the camp, with the hopes of connecting with a future generation. Even though she was one of the few survivors, Delbo explains the state of the prisoners in their Auschwitz world were “silence reigned.” [5] It was a world in which the livelihood of prisoners had been silenced amidst constant cruelty; this silence was not only an external blackout of sound but an internal emptiness of feeling. For Delbo, she was now determined to write about both silences and express what it was like not only to live in silence but to personally experience it.

"I was standing amid my comrades and I think to myself that if I ever return and will want to explain the inexplainable, I shall say: “I was saying to myself: you must stay standing through roll call. You must get through one more day. It is because you got through today that you will return one day, if you ever return.” This is not so. Actually I did not say anything to myself. I thought of nothing. The will to resist was doubtlessly buried in some deep, hidden spring which is now broken, I will never know. And if the women who died had required those who returned to account for what had taken place, they would be unable to do so. I thought of nothing. I felt nothing. I was a skeleton of cold, with cold blowing through all the crevices in between a skeleton’s ribs."[5]

As Delbo was writing she realized that her words intended to make readers envision what universal concentration would be like; what the world would be like if everyone experienced constant suffering, death and everlasting subordination. However, this was an impossible task because universal concentration was not something one could experience in words and ideas, it was something one had to live first-hand. Even if she could not lend her readers an experience of constant barbarity she looked to the future: “I hope that these texts will make the reoccurrence of this horror impossible. This is my dearest wish.” [10]. Whether Delbo realized that it was impossible for the world to feel universal concentration is unclear; what is clear is that Delbo was hopeful for the future and even if her words could not do exactly what she intended, they could provide encouragement for future generations to not allow this atrocity to occur again.

After this first volume poured out so quickly, Delbo decided to put it away in a drawer, to re-read and polish at a later time. However, “None of Us Will Return” remained untouched in that drawer for nearly twenty years. While the text lay alone in a drawer, unread and unrecognized, Delbo continued her professional life as a sociologist with a research group first in Geneva and then back in Paris. She claims her mother was her best friend throughout this time and those few survivors became part of her family. Just as her fellow inmates were her means to survive in Auschwitz, they became a means for her to survive after too.

Back to Reality: Resuming "Normal Life"

The next two volumes, written twenty years after the first, account for her struggle to return to the “normal life” she had once lived. For Delbo Auschwitz was always closing in on her life and it was a struggle to keep it from taking over. [11] But in returning to what once was, Delbo had to manage the extraordinary experience she had survived. Attempting to convey the evils of the Holocaust became a key portion of her return to life after Auschwitz. In her work Delbo was not trying to elicit some sort of sympathy from those who had not experienced the atrocity of a concentration camp, but for readers to “listen to the stories of those who have suffered evil” because too often they (readers) “fail[ed] to face suffering as suffering, fail[ed] to acknowledge the extremity of suffering as a result of evil action.” [12]

Lasting Implications

Through her work Delbo leaves the the reader and hopefully the world with a sense of the senseless. She points to the ever-present nature of evil while emphasizing the necessity for the human race to never accept that it must exist. True depravity is such an unfamiliar image to most and thus it is even more disturbing. Delbo’s phenomenology of evil distorts any ideas we can garner about its existence, demonstrating that any knowledge we have is limited and any knowledge one can gain (through suffering) is useless. [12]. Unfortunately, there will be those who are forced to suffer through its existence and in their case the world must move to understand their situation.

One of her greatest contributions was her willingness to bridge two worlds separate from one another. Instead of isolating herself in a world that nobody could understand (simply because so few had lived it), Delbo attempted to explain the unexplainable with the intention that the untouched world would not lose their connection with the sufferers and the sufferers could grow to tell their story. In doing so Delbo hoped that those who had suffered the unimaginable would provide future generations with living proof that this madness could never occur again. The reason being was not for the sake of Delbo, but for the sake of humanity.

Delbo’s Auschwitz experience did not end there. After she faced and conquered many of the lasting imprints of her time in the death camp, working past the struggle to survive and gaining the will to move on, Delbo honored her compatriots, her fallen friends, who just as much kept her alive in Auschwitz as they did after by publishing the trilogy. It is in this trilogy that she recounts the equalizing value of Auschwitz, recognizing that it erased all identities and left anyone who could survive its horror with an everlasting sense of terror.

Charlotte Delbo died in 1985 from lung cancer. She never remarried and was survived by one son. [1]

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Charlotte Delbo - Biography." Spiritus-Temporis.com - Historical Events, Latest News, News Archives. http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/charlotte-delbo/biography.html (accessed May 11, 2010)
  2. "The Vichy Regime." Jewish Virtual Library - Homepage. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/VichyRegime.html (accessed May 11, 2010)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Charlotte Delbo - Biography." Spiritus-Temporis.com - Historical Events, Latest News, News Archives. http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/charlotte-delbo/biography.html (accessed May 11, 2010)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1993
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Delbo, Charlotte. Auschwitz and After. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. Print
  6. Scott, Joan. "Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis." American Historical Association 91, no. 5 (1986): 1053-1075. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1864376 (accessed May 6, 2010).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1993
  8. Abowitz, Deborah . "Bringing the Sociological into the Discussion: Teaching the Sociology of Genocide and the Holocaust." Teaching Sociology 30, no. 1 (2002): 26-38
  9. 9.0 9.1 Auslander, Leora . "Coming Home? Jews in Postwar Paris." Journal of Contemporary History 40, no. 2 (2005): 237-259. www.jstor.org (accessed April 25, 2010
  10. Lamont, Rosette. "The Triple Courage of Charlotte Delbo: A Place without a Name." The Massachusetts Review 41, no. 4 (2000): 483-497. www.jstor.org (accessed April 23, 2010)
  11. Langer, Lawrence. "The Humanities of Testimony." Poetics Today 27, no. 2 (2006): 297-309. www.jstor.org (accessed April 24, 2010)
  12. 12.0 12.1 Geddes, Jennifer . "Banal Evil and Useless Knowledge: Hannah Arendt and Charlotte Delbo on Evil after the Holocaust." Hypatia 18, no. 1 (2003): 104-115. www.jstor.org (accessed April 24, 2010)

Annotated Bibliography

Abowitz, Deborah . "Bringing the Sociological into the Discussion: Teaching the Sociology of Genocide and the Holocaust." Teaching Sociology 30, no. 1 (2002): 26-38.

This article examines many of the sociological concepts behind genocide specifically in the Holocaust. It analyzes the social constructs and "collective behavior" necessary for genocide to exist and proliferate in society. While this review is over fifty years after the Holocaust it provides a modern day picture of the circumstances needed for this horror; a horror that Charlotte Delbo depicts in Auschwitz and After. Delbo was a former philosophy student at the Sorbonne and throughout her text it becomes apparent that she has identified many of the variables present for the terror of the Holocaust.

Auslander, Leora . "Coming Home? Jews in Postwar Paris." Journal of Contemporary History 40, no. 2 (2005): 237-259. www.jstor.org (accessed April 25, 2010).

This article address many of the issues that Jews were facing when they returned to Paris at the end of World War II. They were returning to a land they were supposed to call home, but it proved extremely difficult since this "home" had virtually sold them over to the enemy. They had lost their Parisian identity and were faced with the challenge of regaining not only that identity but a trust in their nation. While Charlotte Delbo was not a Jew, her time in the Auschwitz death camp was very similar to that of the Jews who were in the death camp. As the article depicts, Jews faced the issue of reintegrating themselves back into society and reconnecting with articles they had left behind when they were sent to the death camps. These were similar sentiments felt by Delbo. While the government did not ostracize her for her religion, she was ostracized for political opinion and belief in humanity. It took her 20 years to publish the first part of Auschwitz and After once it was ridden and this struggle demonstrates much of her battle to overcome the evils of World War II and touch the future with her words.

Geddes, Jennifer . "Banal Evil and Useless Knowledge: Hannah Arendt and Charlotte Delbo on Evil after the Holocaust." Hypatia 18, no. 1 (2003): 104-115. www.jstor.org (accessed April 24, 2010).

Jennifer Geddes examines much of the evil present in the holocaust and the debate about evil. She recognizes the three divisions in scholarship on evil: (1) the division between the study of the perpetrator verse the study of the victim, (2) the debate over the intent or the effect of evil, and (3) theoretical and empirical studies on evil. This article centers much of its opinion of the victim’s emotions on Charlotte Delbo's Auschwitz and After, specifically focusing on the metaphysical aspects of Delbo's text. "Delbo shows us, there are subtle ways in which we fail to listen to the stories of those who have suffered evil, fail to face suffering as suffering, fail to acknowledge the extremity of suffering undergone as a result of evil action." As it is noted, Delbo is speaking for the victim, attempting to picture the impossible to readers who have no idea of the horror she is speaking and the suffering she has faced.

Lamont, Rosette. "The Triple Courage of Charlotte Delbo: A Place without a Name." The Massachusetts Review 41, no. 4 (2000): 483-497. www.jstor.org (accessed April 23, 2010).

In this article Rosette Lamont shares the details of her relationship with Charlotte Delbo and the insight she gained about Delbo's Aushwitz and After through their talks. Much of the article deals with both Delbo's intent for writing her book and the struggle she faced in writing it. Lamont recalls Delbo stating, "'I hope that these texts will make the recurrence of this horror impossible.'" Delbo was not just writing for the sake of her story but for the sake of humanity and its future on Earth. Lamont voices Delbo's personal struggle to overcome the scars of life in Auschwitz and entrust future generations with the responsibility of "carrying the word" that this horror could never happen again.

Langer, Lawrence. "The Humanities of Testimony." Poetics Today 27, no. 2 (2006): 297-309. www.jstor.org (accessed April 24, 2010).

In this article Lawrence Langer discuses the difficulties and struggles faced by survivors in conveying the truth of life in World War II death camps. Langer notes the difficulties in writing down the horrors that are truly alien to most audiences and tribulations faced in recurring those tragedies on paper. These are battles that Charlotte Delbo faced in writing Auschwitz and After. The lack of moral universe in the Holocaust leaves her to find meaning in mass chaos and destruction. Fortunately, and for selfless reasons, Delbo overcomes her personal demons and writes a telling story about life in Auschwitz.

Scott, Joan. "Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis." American Historical Association 91, no. 5 (1986): 1053-1075. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1864376 (accessed May 6, 2010).

In this article Joan Scott insists that gender must be used as a category for analysis. However, Delbo explicitly rejects this idea. While she is not intending to, Delbo insists that gender did not provide any differentiation within Auschwitz. Scott may claim that since the Nazis are masculinized in the camp, the prisoners are feminized (since they have lost all power); however, Delbo would still reject this idea because she claims that the inmates were treated inhumanly across the lines and there were no confounds that separated this treatment.

Bibliography

"Charlotte Delbo - Biography." Spiritus-Temporis.com - Historical Events, Latest News, News Archives. http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/charlotte-delbo/biography.html (accessed May 11, 2010).

"Charlotte Delbo: Encyclopedia II - Charlotte Delbo - Biography." Enlightenment - The Experience Festival. http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Charlotte_Delbo_-_Biography/id/4914286 (accessed May 11, 2010).

Delbo, Charlotte, and John Felstiner. Convoy To Auschwitz: Women of the French Resistance (Women's Life Writings from Around the World). Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1997.

Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1993.

"Glossary of People: Po." Marxists Internet Archive. http://www.marxists.org/glossary/people/p/o.htm#politzer-georges (accessed May 11, 2010).

"The Vichy Regime." Jewish Virtual Library - Homepage. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/VichyRegime.html (accessed May 11, 2010).

For Further Inquiry

http://www.scrapbookpages.com/natzweiler/History/FrenchResistance.html

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FRresistance.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maquis_(World_War_II)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Resistance

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/resistance_movements.htm

Also see these other women in European history:

Irène Némirovsky

Wanda Poltawska

Edith Hahn Beer

Margarete Buber-Neumann

Retrieved from "http://womenineuropeanhistory.org/index.php?title=Charlotte_Delbo"

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